Playwright , Poet
theater , poetry
· Peer Gynt
· A doll’s house
· An enemy of the people
· Wild duck
· Hedda Gabler
Henrik Johan Ibsen ( March 20 , 1828, Skien , Norway – May 23 , 1906, Christiania ) is a Norwegian playwright .
o 1.2Early writings
o 1.31852-1857 – Bergen
o 1.41857-1864 – Christiana
o 1.51864-1891 – International Recognition
o 1.61891-1906 – Triumphal return to Norway and last years
o 4.1First theatrical editions in Norwegian
o 4.2 Frenchtranslations
· 5Representations in France
o 5.1Circle of Escholiers
o 5.2Bouffes du Nord Theater
o 5.3Theater of Menus-Pleasures
o 5.4Theater of Paris | New Theater
o 5.5Odeon Theater
o 5.6National Hill Theater
o 5.7Cornwall Theater of Quimper
o 5.8North West Theater in Paris
· 6French Edition
· 7Cinematographic adaptations
· 9Notes and references
· 10See also
o 10.1External links
The son of Marichen Ibsen (nee Altenburg) and Knud Ibsen, Henrik Johan Ibsen was born into a home, which, as a result of unfortunate speculation in 1836, the bankruptcy of paternal affairs quickly disunited. The whole family moved to Gjerpen , where Henrik Ibsen made his confirmation in 1843.
His father sank into alcoholism after family property had to be sold, while his mother turned to Protestant mysticism . At that time and until 1945, the Lutheran Church was the only one authorized in Norway, Catholics having been expelled and their property confiscated since 1683 1 . This unique authority, marked by moral intransigence, durably marks the young Ibsen; several pieces echo it, including A doll’s house .
He left the family home the same year to settle in Grimstad : between 1844 and 1850, he worked as a pharmacy apprentice at Jens Aarup Reimann, while continuing his studies to become a doctor. Orientation that he abandons then.
The revolutionary events of 1848 led him, the following year, to write his first play, Catilina . It was published on behalf of the author in 1850, in 250 copies, under the pseudonym Brynjolf Bjarme, by the care of Ole Carelius Schulerud. This friend of Henrik dedicates a sum of inherited money, after the refusal of the manuscript by the Christiana Theater. The play will be performed for the first time in 1881 in Stockholm 2 .
At the time of this first publication, Henrik Ibsen still works as an apprentice pharmacy educator, studies and writes at night, takes private lessons in Latin and participates in the writing of the Journal of the Students’ Association and the literary weekly. and satirical Andhrimner . The1 st April 1850, he goes to Christiana (now Oslo) to pass his baccalaureate and enter the university .
That same year, he lays down on paper a second piece in one act, The Tertre des guerriers , which is accepted by the Christiana Theater. The September 26 , 1850For the first time, a play by Henrik Ibsen (still under the pseudonym Brunjolf Bjarme) was performed in front of an audience of 557 spectators. The reception is mixed. In 1851, he published Norma and is interested in politics, especially in trade unionism and socialist movement of Marcus Thrane 3 .
That same year, violinist Ole Bull , founder of the Norske Theater in Bergen , asked him to become its artistic director. Henrik Ibsen accepts this position and moves to Bergen. He also made a study trip to Copenhagen , then to Dresden , to get acquainted with theater techniques.
Between 1852 and 1857, Ibsen worked at the Bergen National Theater, for which he wrote and directed. His own performances, however, are not very successful until the presentation of the Solhaug Banquet, a piece influenced by Norwegian popular folklore, in 1856. During his six years at Bergen, Ibsen “scarcely notices it. Separated from his family, rejecting the dominant religion, sailing on the edge of poverty, Ibsen is portrayed by all who knew him then as solitary and taciturn. Moreover, the pieces he writes do not meet with much success: the epic style is not his. His fourth piece, however, has a certain echo, which allows him to frequent more influential circles. It is among them that Ibsen met Suzannah Thorensen, who will become his wife in 1858 and to accompany him to the end of his life, in 1906 4 . “
In 1857, he returned to the Norwegian capital Christiana to take over the direction of the National Theater, the Christiana Theater. He married the following year, Suzannah Thorensen (1836-1914), with whom he has a son, Sigurd, born December 23, 1859. His only son will become Norwegian Prime Minister from 1903 to 1905 at the time of the separation of Norway of the Kingdom of Sweden. Sigurd will complete his life in Italy, where he had partly grown up.
Very quickly, the situation deteriorates: Ibsen “cares little theater that he is supposed to lead: he lets go and starts drinking; we find him sometimes, wandering in the city. Financially, his situation is deteriorating; that of the theater as well: the revenues melt, the debts accumulate 4 . Unable to manage an institution, Ibsen gradually sees oppositions rise. He was removed from his position as director, but kept at Christiana Theater as an advisor; he lives essentially orders of texts in verse. After asking a government scholarship for a trip to Europe, he met with a denial that leaves gradually replaced by a deep disappointment, reinforced by his enemies who demand his resignation Complete 5 .
In 1862, the Christiana Theater was closed. Ibsen, relieved of his duties as director, undertakes a trip to Gudbrandsdal and western Norway to collect elements of Nordic folk legends. These materials allow him to write a play in the form of an apology of the nation: The Pretenders of the Crown (1863). The success of this piece allows him to obtain a scholarship, completed by his friend Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson : he leaves Norway for Italy; he will not return to his country until 1891.
Ibsen leaves for Rome where he settles, after stays in Copenhagen , during four years. It is there that he wrote, as early as 1865, a tragedy in very bitter verse against the notables: Brand (“Fire”). Breaking with national lyricism to the glory of Norway, this text appears as a first step towards social realism . The play is very successful and arousing great interest. The Storting, the Norwegian Parliament, decides to grant him an annual writer’s scholarship, a pension for life. He published the following year Peer Gynt is especially acclaimed in Norway and inspire the composer Edvard Grieg 6 .
In 1868, Ibsen left Rome for Dresden , where he settled for nearly seven years; he wrote Emperor and Galilean in 1873, a piece which passes rather unnoticed at its publication.
In 1874, Ibsen left for Munich , where he lived until 1878. It was in this city that he wrote in 1877 The Pillars of Society , a piece that constitutes a real turning point in the work of the playwright, with the opening of a cycle centered on social criticism, marked by the realism of descriptions and the use of prose. “The Ibsen drama, it’s a little Greek tragedy democratizing and strikes the bourgeois family,” wrote the Belgian philosopher Michel Meyer 4 .
Returning to Rome – for seven years – in 1878, Henrik Ibsen continued in the same vein, with the publication of the drama social A Doll’s House , published in 1879. The play, because of its innovative and scandalous fall, was a success international. His fame is such that his plays are gradually mounted in all the capitals of Europe. Two years later, his play Les Revenants is the subject of a severe criticism that increases his aura even more; it tackles heated topics, such as venereal diseases , incest and euthanasia 7 .
Between 1882 and 1890, he published five plays which definitively installed him among the greatest playwrights of his time: An enemy of the people (1882), satire of petty-bourgeois ideals, The Wild Duck (1884), illustrating his increasing relativism, Rosmersholm (1886), The Lady of the Sea (1888), in which popular folklore is put to the service of a psychological analysis of the characters 8 , and Hedda Gabler (1890). These last three plays are written in Munich, where Ibsen stays between 1885 and 1891.
In 1890, his works were translated for the first time in English by William Archer .
He returned to Norway in 1891, after twenty-seven years of absence, as an internationally known author. Living in Christiana, where he lives until the end of his life, he continues to write pieces that are equally successful: Solness the Builder (1892), The Little Eyolf (1893), John Gabriel Borkman (1896) and when we wake up from the dead (1899). This last piece is considered the literary testament Ibsen, because of the long reflection of the main hero of his work 9 .
Its 70 th anniversary in 1898, is during national festivities in Christiania , Copenhagen and Stockholm in particular. This anniversary is being celebrated throughout Europe. His complete works are published and performances of his plays are performed in all major theaters.
Henrik Ibsen for his 70 th birthday in 1898
In 1900, he suffered a stroke , which left him unable to write until his death on May 23 , 1906.
His best-known works are A Doll’s House , The Wild Duck , Rosmersholm , Hedda Gabler . Some more political ones, such as The Pretenders to the Crown , The Supporters of Society , The Revenants and above all An enemy of the people have often struck the opinion of the progressive or the Norwegian left. However, according to Jeanne Pailler, Henrik Ibsen is an “author of historical dramas and intimate pieces, considered a reformist relent by some, as a conservative by others” 10. Hostile to the clerical parties and traditionalism of the Norwegian monarchy of his day, he is often seen as a liberal in Norway. Although translated by the title Wild Duck , the bird in question is actually a cane; the determinants of the name in the original language confirm it.
“The state is the curse of the individual. The state must disappear. That’s the revolution I want to do. That the concept of the state is ruined, that the unique bond of all association is made free will and affinities, and this will be the germ of a freedom that will have some significance. Changing the form of government is not another thing to rummage among the nightingales of a back room 11 . “
“What you call liberty, I call liberties, and what I call the struggle for freedom is none other than the repeated and living acquisition of the idea of freedom. He who possesses freedom other than as the object to be sought, possesses it dead and without spirit, for the notion of liberty has this peculiarity that it always extends during the acquisition, and if then someone stop in the middle of the struggle, saying: I have it now, it shows precisely that he lost it. (Letter to the Danish critic Georg Brandes, February 1871 12 )
“It has been said that I too, from my advanced position, contributed to the advent of a new era. Rather, I believe that the time we live in now could just as well be considered a conclusion and something new is in the making.
Indeed, I believe that the theory of evolution taught by the natural sciences is valid also for the spiritual factors of life.
I believe that very soon there will come a time when the political notion and the social notion will cease to exist in their present forms, and together they will engender a unique notion which will provisionally bring together the conditions of the happiness of humanity.
I believe that poetry, philosophy and religion will merge to form a new category and vital force that we, who are now living, can not have a very clear representation.
It has been said on a number of occasions that I was pessimistic. And I am, of course, to the extent that I do not believe in the eternity of human ideals. But I am also optimistic to the extent that I fully and firmly believe in the reproductive capacity of ideals and their ability to evolve.
I believe more precisely that in sinking, the ideals of our time tend towards what I referred to in my drama Emperor and Galilean, speaking of the third reign. So let me toast to the future, the future time 13 . (September 24, 1887)
Portrait by Eilif Peterssen (1895).
Vienna Ibsen Theater .
Lithograph by Frank Wedekind (1898).
Tomb of Ibsen at the cemetery of Notre-Sauveur (Oslo) .
· (no) Catilina , PF Steensballe, Christiana, April 12, 1850.
· First performance: December 3, 1881 at Nya teatern in Stockholm. Directed by Ludvig Oscar Josephson.
· (no) Kjæmpehøjen ( The Terrier of the Warriors ), in Scandinavian Studies and Notes , 1917 (posthumous).
· First performance: September 26, 1850 at Christiania Theater. Directed by Christian Jørgensen.
· (no) Norma ( Norma ), in Posthumous Writings TI, 1909 (posthumous).
· First performance: 5 November 1994 by the Studentenes Interne Teater in Trondheim. Directed by Marit Moum Aune. (posthumous)
· (no) Sancthansnatten ( The Night of St. John ), in Posthumous Writings TI, 1909 (posthumous).
· First performance: January 2, 1853 at the Norske Theater in Bergen.
· (no) Fru Inger til Østeraad ( Lady Inger of Østråt ), serialized from May 31 to August 23, 1857 in the magazine Illustreret Nyhedsblad.
· First performance: January 2, 1855 at the Norske Theater in Bergen.
· (no) Gildet paa Solhoug ( The Solhaug Festival ), Chr. Tønsberg, Christiana, March 19, 1856.
· First performance: January 2, 1856 at the Norske Theater in Bergen. Directed by Henrik Ibsen.
· (from) Olaf Liljekrans ( Olaf Liljekrans ), (translated by Emma Klingenfeld), in Complete Works by Henrik Ibsen , Berlin, 1898.
· First performance: January 2, 1857 at the Norske Theater in Bergen. Directed by Henrik Ibsen.
· (No.) Hærmændene paa Helgeland ( Warriors of Helgeland ), supplement to the weekly Illustreret Nyhedsblad Christiania, April 25, 1858.
· First performance: November 24, 1858 at Christiania Norske Theater.
· (no) Kjærlighedens Komedie ( Comedy of Love ), free supplement to the weekly Illustreret Nyhedsblad, Christiania, December 31, 1862.
· First performance: November 24, 1873 at Christiania Theater. Directed by Ludvig Josephson.
· (no) Kongs-Emnerne ( The Pretenders to the Crown ), Johan Dahl, Christiania, October 1863.
· First performance: January 17, 1864 at the Christiania Theater.
· (no) Brand ( Brand ), Gyldendalske Boghandel, Copenhagen, March 15th, 1866.
· First full performance: March 24, 1885, at the Nya Teater in Stockholm. Directed by Ludvig Josephson.
· (no) Peer Gynt ( Peer Gynt ), Gyldendalske Boghandel, Copenhagen, November 14, 1867.
· First performance: February 24, 1876, at the Christiania Theater.
· (no) From Unites Forbund ( The Youth Union ), Gyldendalske Boghandel, Copenhagen, September 30, 1869.
· First performance: October 18, 1869 at Christiania Theater.
· (no) Kejser og Galilæer ( Emperor and Galilean ), Gyldendalske Boghandel, Copenhagen, October 16, 1873.
· First performance: December 5, 1896 at Leipzig Stadttheater (Germany) (reworked version of 6 acts)
· (no) Samfundets Støtter ( Society Supporters ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, 11 October 1877.
· First performance: November 14, 1877 at the Odense Teater (Denmark).
· And Dukkehjem ( A Doll’s House ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 4, 1879.
· First performance: December 21, 1879 at Kongelige Teater in Copenhagen.
· (no) Gengangere ( The Revenants ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 13, 1881.
· First performance: May 20, 1882 at Aurora Turner Hall (Chicago).
· (no) In folkefiende ( An enemy of the people ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, November 28, 1882.
· First performance: January 13, 1883 at the Christiania Theater. Directed by Johannes Brun.
· (no) Vildanden ( The Wild Duck ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, November 11, 1884.
· First performance: January 9, 1885, at the National Scene in Bergen. Directed by Gunnar Heiberg.
· (no) Rosmersholm ( Rosmersholm ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, 23 November 1886.
· First performance: January 17, 1887, at the National Scene in Bergen. Directed by Gunnar Heiberg.
· (no) Fruen fra Havet ( Lady of the Sea ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, November 28, 1888.
· First performance: February 12, 1889: Weimar Hoftheater and Christiania Theater.
· (no) Hedda Gabler ( Hedda Gabler ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 16, 1890.
· First performance: January 31, 1891 at the Residenztheater (Munich).
· (No.) Bygmester Solness ( The Master Builder ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Christiana, 12 December 1892.
· First performance: January 19, 1893 at Lessing-Theater (Berlin).
· (no) Lille Eyolf ( The Little Eyolf ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 11, 1894.
· First performance: January 12, 1895 at the Deutsches Theater (Berlin).
· (no) John Gabriel Borkman ( John Gabriel Borkman ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 15, 1896.
· First performance: January 10, 1897 at Svenska Teatern ( Swedish Theater ) and Suomalainen Teaatteri (Finnish Theater).
· (no) Når vi døde vågner ( When we wake up from the dead ), Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen, December 22, 1899.
· First performance: January 26, 1900 at the Hoftheater (Stuttgart).
Between 1914 and 1915 , the French Pierre Georget La Chesnais (known in Norway as PG La Chesnais) translated all of his dramatic works commented in sixteen volumes that will appear in the 1930s .
· Complete Works , French text Pierre Georget La Chesnais, Plon Bookstore, Paris, 1930-1945, 16 vols.
· Volume I, Works of Grimstad (1847-1850), 1930: Poems / The Prisoner of Akershus / Catilina (1850) .
· Volume II, Works of Kristiania (April 1850-October 1851), 1930: Poems / Proses / Norma (1851) / The Mound of the Warrior (1850) .
· Volume III, Works of Bergen (October 1851-August 1857), 1932: Poetry / Prose / The Night of Saint John (1852) / M me Inger of Astract (1854) .
· Volume IV, 1932: Works of Bergen (October 1851-August 1857 continued): The Solhaug Festival (1855) / Olaf Liljekrans (1850-1856) / The Warriors in Helgeland (1854-1857) .
· Volume V, Works of Kristiania. Second Stay (1857-1864), 1934: Poems and Proses .
· Volume VI, Works of Kristiania Second Stay, (continued), 1934: The Comedy of Love (1862) / The Pretenders to the Crown (1863) .
· Volume VII, Works of Italy. First Stay (1864-1869), 1935: Brand (1865) .
· Volume VIII, Works of Italy. First Stay (continued), 1936: Peer Gynt (1867) .
· Volume IX, Works of Dresden (1867-1873), 1937: The Youth Union (1867-1869) / Poems / Emperor and Galilean (notice) .
· Volume X, Works of Dresden (1867-1875), 1937: Emperor and Galilean (1873) .
· Volume XI, Modern Dramas, 1939: Poems / Speeches / The Supporters of Society (1877) / Doll House (1879) .
· Volume XII, Modern Dramas (continued), 1940: The Revenants (1881) / An Enemy of the People (1882) .
· Volume XIII, Modern Dramas (continued), 1941: The Wild Duck (1884) / Rosmersholm (1886) .
· Volume XIV Modern Dramas (continued), 1943: The Lady of the Sea (1888) / Hedda Gabler (1890) .
· Volume XV, Works of Kristiania, third stay (1895-1906), 1945: the Builder Solness (1892) / Small Eyolf (1894) .
· Volume XVI, Works of Kristiania, third stay, continued, 1945: John Gabriel Borkman (1896) / When we wake up from the dead (1899), Proses, Tables .
· The last twelve plays, translation and presentation by Terje Sinding , Imprimerie Nationale – Actes Sud, coll. “The French Spectator”, Paris, 4 vols.
· Volume 1, 1991: The Pillars of Society / Dollhouse / The Revenants
· Volume 2, 1991: An Enemy of the People / The Wild Duck / Rosmersholm , in collaboration with Bernard Dort .
· Volume 3, 1993: The Lady of the Sea / Hedda Gabler / Solness the builder
· Volume 4, 1993: Little Eyolf / John Gabriel Borkman / When we wake up from the dead
· Emperor and Galilean translated by Denise Bernard-Folliot, Theatrical Publishing, 2000
· Several pieces at Actes Sud :
· John Gabriel Borkman , translated by Maurice Prozor , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers,” 1989
· Les Revenants , translated by Jean-Claude Buchard, Emilie Smadja, Nathalie Sultan, Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 1990
· The Lady of the Sea , translated by Jean-Claude Buchard, Emilie Smadja, Nathalie Sultan, Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 1990
· Peer Gynt , translated by Marie Cardinal, Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 1991
· The Constructor Solness , translated by Eloi Recoing and Ruth Orthmann, Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 1993
· Hedda Gabler, followed by Petit Eyolf , translated by Michel Vitoz, Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 2003
· When we wake up from the dead , translated by Eloi Recoing , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers,” 2004
· Brand: A Dramatic Poem , translated by Eloi Recoing , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers,” 2004
· A dollhouse , translated by Eloi Recoing , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 2009
· Rosmersholm , translated by Eloi Recoing , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 2009
· Wild duck , translated by Eloi Recoing , Arles, Actes Sud, “Papers”, 2013
· A volume of theatrical works containing The Pillars of Society , A Dollhouse , The Revenants , An Enemy of the People , The Wild Duck , Rosmersholm , The Lady of the Sea , Hedda Gabler , Solness the Builder , The Little Eyolf , John Gabriel Borkman , When we wake up from the dead :
· Ibsen, contemporary dramas , translations by Maurice Prozor , Pierre Bertrand and Edmond de Nevers; reviews on the original text by Karin Gundersen, The paperback , coll. The Pochotheque, 2005. EAN / ( ISBN 2-253-13128-8 )
· A volume of theatrical works containing Crown Pretenders , Brand , Peer Gynt , The Youth League , Emperor and Galilean , The Supporters of Society , A Doll’s House , The Revenants , An Enemy of the People , The Wild Cane , Rosmersholm , The Lady of the Sea , Hedda Gabler , Solness the Builder , Little Eyolf , John Gabriel Borkman , When We Will Rise :
· Ibsen, Theater , translated by Régis Boyer , Gallimard, coll. Library of the Pleiades n o 529, 2006. / ( ISBN 2-070-11790-1 )
· Rosmersholm , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1893
· An enemy of the people , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1893
· Solness the Builder , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1894
· The Little Eyolf , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1895
· Brand , directed by Lugné-Poe , 1895
· The Supporters of Society , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1896
· Peer Gynt , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1896 . The program is the work of Edvard Munch
· Comedy of Love , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1897
· John Gabriel Borkman , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1897
· An enemy of the people , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1899
· Rosmersholm , directed by Lugné-Poe , 1902
· An enemy of the people , directed by Lugne-Poe , 1902
· Wild duck : September 1907, April 1913, June 1939
· The Revenants : April 1908
· Peer Gynt : December 1937, May 1946
· Hedda Gabler , 1982, directed by Jean-Pierre Miquel
· John Gabriel Borkman , December 1985, directed by Ingmar Bergman ; April-May 1993, directed by Luc Bondy , with Michel Piccoli
· Doll House , April-May 1997, Directed by Deborah Warner
· Hedda Gabler : January-March 2005, directed by Eric Lacascade , with Isabelle Huppert as Hedda
· John Gabriel Borkman , premiered December 2008, directed by Thomas Ostermeier
· Petit Eyolf : 2003, directed by Alain Françon
· Brand : 2005, directed and staged by Stéphane Braunschweig
· Mabou Mines Dollhouse : 2006, adaptation and staging of Lee Breuer
· Hedda Gabler : 2006, directed by Richard Brunel
· A doll’s house : 2009, directed and staged by Stéphane Braunschweig
· Rosmersholm : 2009, directed and staged by Stéphane Braunschweig
· Solness the builder : 2013, directed by Alain Françon
· The Wild duck : 2014, directed by Stéphane Braunschweig
· Les Revenants , May 2013, with Thomas Ostermeier, Eric Caravaca, Valerie Dreville, Jean-Pierre Gos, Francois Loriquet , Melody Richard, Olivier Cadiot 14 .
An “Ibsen Integral” 15 takes place from February 7 to June 4, 2018 with 14 pieces of Ibsen played alternately for 4 months by 130 actors.
· Theater , Library of the Pleiades , n o 529, 2006 ( ISBN 2070117901 )
· A Doll’s House and The Revenants , The Paperback , 2002 ( ISBN 2253052558 )
· Peer Gynt , Theatrical, 1997 ( ISBN 2842600061 )
· Hedda Gabler , The Paperback , 2005 ( ISBN 2253085723 )
· When we wake up from the dead , Actes Sud , 2005, ( ISBN 2742752854 )