Portrait of Virginia Woolf , 1902. Photograph by George Charles Beresford
Virginia Woolf [ vədʒɪnjə wʊlf ] (born January 25, 1882 in London , † March 28, 1941 at Rodmell near Lewes , Sussex , born Adeline Virginia Stephen ) was a British writer and publisher . She came from a wealthy intellectual family, which had numerous contacts with men of letters. As a teenager, she experienced the Victorian restrictions on girls and women. She was an early literary critic and essayistactive; her career as a novelist began in 1915 with the novel The Voyage Out (The trip out) . In the late 1920s, she was a successful and internationally known writer. Woolf was rediscovered in the 1970s when her essay A Room of One’s Own ( A Room of One’s Own ) in 1929 as one of the most quoted texts of the new women’s movement was. Alongside Gertrude Stein, her avant-garde work makes her one of the most important authors of classical modernism .
Table of Contents
o 1.1childhood and youth
o 1.2Bloomsbury Group
o 1.3The Dreadnought Prank
o 1.4Marriage and Romance debut
o 1.5Foundation of the Hogarth Press
o 1.6Acquisition of Monk’s House
o 1.7Vita Sackville-West
o 1.8Mrs Dalloway , to the lighthouse
o 1.10The Essay A room on its own
o 1.11The waves and flush
o 1.12Freshwater , The Years and Three Guinea
o 1.13World War II and death
· 2To the factory
o 2.1The experimental novel
o 2.2The essays
o 2.3Diaries and letters
o 3.1Effects during lifetime
o 3.2Perception through emancipatory movements
o 3.3Effects in German-speaking countries
o 3.6 Playand Film Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
· 4narrative work (selection)
· 5letters, diaries
· 6secondary literature
· 8readings / audiobooks
· 9radio play edits
· 10web links
· 11individual proofs
Childhood and Youth
Leslie Stephen, c. 1860. Photographer unknown
Julia Stephen with Virginia, 1884. Photograph by Henry H. H. Cameron
Virginia Stephen (left) and her sister Vanessa . Photography before 1900
Virginia Woolf was the daughter of the writer, historian, essayist, biographer and mountaineer Sir Leslie Stephen(1832-1904) and his second wife Julia Prinsep Jackson (1846-1895). She had three siblings: Vanessa Stephen(1879-1961), Thoby Stephen (1880-1906) and Adrian Stephen (1883-1948). In addition there were the half-sister Laura Makepeace Stephen (1870-1945) from her father’s first marriage to Harriet Marion Thackeray (1840-1875) and the half-siblings George Herbert Duckworth (1868-1934), Stella Duckworth (1869-1897) and Gerald Duckworth ( 1870-1937) from her mother’s first marriage with Herbert Duckworth (1833-1870). The family residence was in London’s Kensington district, 22 Hyde Park Gate. The intellectual and artistic elite of the time, such as Alfred Tennyson , Thomas Hardy , Henry James and Edward Burne-Jones , visited Leslie Stephens Salon.
Psychoanalysts and biographers describe that the half-siblings Gerald and George Duckworth have abused Virginia or at least touched it more often immoral, and thus could have set one of the triggers of their manic-depressive illness, which now trades under bipolar disorder .   Virginia herself has only hinted at suchexperiences in her autobiographical text A Sketch of the Past in the rigid Victorian era. Hermione Leewrites in her biography of Virginia Woolf: “The evidence is strong enough, but also ambiguous enough to pave the way for conflicting psychobiographical interpretations that depict very different depictions of Virginia Woolf’s inner life.” Others, more psychologically Working scientists point out the genetic predisposition of their family.   Thus, Virginia’s father was known to suffer from seizures of self-doubt and congestive symptoms, which manifested themselves in persistent headache, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety; The daughter also later complained of similar complaints. 
Virginia Stephen did not attend school, but received private lessons from home teachers and her father. She was impressed by her father’s literary work and his work as publisher of the monumental Dictionary of National Biography and his extensive private library; Therefore, she expressed the desire early to become a writer. When her mother died on May 5, 1895, the thirteen-year-old Virginia suffered her first mental collapse. Her half-sister Stella, who initially led the household after the death of Julia Stephen, married Jack Hills two years later and left home. A little later Stella died of peritonitis on her honeymoon .
St Ives, view of the harbor bay
From 1882 to 1894, the family spent the summer holidays at Talland House , their summer home overlooking Porthminster Beach and the Godrevy Point lighthouse. It was in the small coastal town of St Ives in Cornwall , which in 1928 became an artists’ colony . Virginia describes the situation in Sketched Memories :
Contemporary photograph of Talland House
“Our house was […] on the hill. […] It had an ideal view across the bay, all the way to the Godrevyer lighthouse. On the hillside there were small lawns framed by thick flowering bushes […]. One entered Talland House through a large wooden gate – “. Lugaus” […] and then came right hand to […] From Lugausplatz had at that time a very broad view of the bay. ” 
In 1895, after the mother’s death, the house was sold. Virginia often returned to St Ives. She later described the place and the nearby lighthouse at Godrevy Point, Jacob’s Room ( Jacobs rooms ) and To the Lighthouse ( to the lighthouse ) . London and St Ives will often be the setting of their works.
Virginia Stephen with her father, 1902
On June 26, 1902, Virginia’s father was named Knight Commander of the Bath . During this time, Virginia wrote various essays and prepared them for publication. In January 1904, Virginia’s first article was for a women’s supplement in the Guardianprinted. On February 22, 1904, his father died of cancer. This was the end of a period of time for Virginia, which was marked by the exhausting treatment of the difficult personality Leslies. Virginia and Vanessa had already begun in 1897 with the death of Virginia’s half-sister Stella, who had assumed the role of a caring wife for Leslie. Ten weeks after her father’s death, Virginia suffered her second mental illness episode, from which she could not recover until the end of the year.
In 1899, Virginia’s older brother Thoby began studying at Trinity College , Cambridge . At a dinner on November 17, 1904, Virginia met his friend, her future husband Leonard Woolf , who studied law and was about to take up a position in colonial service in Ceylon .
Dora Carrington : Lytton Strachey, 1916
The Stephen siblings moved in 1905 from Kensington in the district Bloomsbury in the house at Gordon Square 46 . Here Thoby started to establish Thursday as a jour fixe for a gathering with his friends. With this custom, the foundation stone of the Bloomsbury Group was laid, which consisted in part of members of the Cambridge Apostles . In addition to Virginia writers such as Saxon Sydney Turner , David Herbert Lawrence , Lytton Strachey , Leonard Woolf, painters such as Mark Gertler , Duncan Grant , Roger Fry belonged to this circleand Virginia’s sister Vanessa, critics like Clive Bell and Desmond MacCarthy, as well as scientists like John Maynard Keynes and Bertrand Russell .
Vanessa Bell, photo by George Charles Beresford , 1902
Virginia was grateful that in this intellectual circle – Vanessa and Mary MacCarthy, they were the only women – they could participate in discussions and free themselves from the moral fetters of their education. In the same year, Virginia began to write for various newspapers and magazines; her collaboration on the Times Literary Supplement lasted until the end of her life. From the end of the year until 1907, she taught English Literature and History at Morley College, a training center for working adults.
On 20 November 1906 fell ill Thoby Stephen, the elder brother of Virginia, during a trip through Greece to typhoid fever and died soon after returning at the age of 26 years – a loss in which Virginia had heavy to carry. Shortly thereafter, Vanessa became engaged to Clive Bell; They married on February 7, 1907, and stayed in the house on Gordon Square, while Virginia and Adrian Stephen moved to the house at Fitzroy Square 29, also in the Bloomsbury district.
Fitzroy Square 29 in London-Bloomsbury. The residence of Virginia and Adrian Stephen (1907 to 1911)
The jour fixe of the “Bloomsberries” thus had two bases; Vanessa Bell’s salon was initially more progressive. The tone became looser, the participants spoke to each other by their first names, the conversations not only had an intellectual character, but were carried by human warmth. English philistinism was the adversary they wanted to fight together, in literature, art and the sexual field.
Lady Ottoline Morrell, 1902
The following year, Virginia made a trip to Siena and Perugia and returned to the UK after a stay in Paris. In February 1909, Lytton Strachey offered her a marriage proposal, which Virginia accepted. But Strachey changed his mind and both agreed to forget the request.
In the summer of 1909 Virginia made the acquaintance of Lady Ottoline Morrell , an aristocrat and patron of the arts. This joined the Bloomsbury Circle and fascinated by their extravagant appearance. Their exotic lifestyle influenced the group, and members gladly accepted the invitation to come to their home on Bedford Square at ten o’clock on Thursdays , where visitors like DH Lawrence and Winston Churchill gathered in the drawing room. In 1915 her house Garsington Manor near Oxford became the meeting place of the “Bloomsberries”. Virginia put Ottoline Morrell in her novel Mrs Dallowaywhich she called “Garsington novel”, a literary monument. [8th]
Also in 1909, Virginia Stephen inherited 2500 pounds from her aunt Caroline Emelia Stephen (1834-1909); the inheritance made it easier for her to continue her writing career. 
The Dreadnought Prank
The photo from the Daily Mirror : The “delegation” with Virginia Woolf on the far left, her brother Adrian as the interpreter third from the left
On February 10, 1910, Virginia along with Duncan Grant, her brother Adrian Stephen, and three other “Bloomsberries” hosted the Dreadnought Prank , which led to an official request in the House of Lords. The troop traveled to the registration with a successfully falsified telegram to the warship HMS Dreadnought in an adventurous elevator to Weymouth . Virginia, Duncan, and two of her friends wore Oriental fancy clothes, pasted beards, and were made up black beyond recognition. They visited the invitation of the commander in chief of the warship as a delegation of four princely diplomats from Abyssinia , a member of the British Foreign Office and an interpreterHMS Dreadnought . The fun was achieved: a delegation led the delegation through the most secret ship, the flags were hoisted, and the chapel played in their honor. However, she played the national anthem of Zanzibar , since the Abyssinian was not obtainable. The princely group chatted with Swahili and the interpreter spoke a gibberish of some lines from Vergil . Fortunately, the only crew member whose native language was Swahili was not on board that day.
A photograph of the reception sent Horace Cole, who joined the group, to the Daily Mirror , which published it.  In addition, he personally went to the Foreign Office to report the prank. The “Bloomsberries” wanted to mock the bureaucracy and the ” Empire ” with their coup, which told them with respect to the name of the ship, “Dreadnought” (fear nothing), which was also a prototype of a whole series of new types of combat ships of the same name, also in the wordplayer sense succeeded; In that sense, it was a double disgrace for the military leadership. The Royal Navy demanded that the instigator Horace Cole be arrested, but to no avail, as the group had not broken any law. Cole offered six lashes on condition that he be allowed to fight back. Duncan Grant was abducted by three men, received two blows in a field and returned home in slippers by subway. 
Marriage and novel debut
Engagement photo 1912
In 1911, Virginia rented a house in the village of Firle near Lewes in Sussex and baptized it in memory of happy childhood days in Cornwall’s Little Talland House . However, it was only a stopgap , and a short time later, Virginia and Vanessa leased the nearby Ashehamhouse , which loved Virginia very much and spent much of her time between 1912 and 1919. From the London apartment on Fitzroy Square, whose lease expired, Virginia and Adrian Stephen moved into the house at Brunswick Square 38. John Maynard Keynes, his friend Duncan Grant and Leonard Woolf occupied there as a subtenant also rooms, much to the displeasure of the relationship: ” A young unmarried woman surrounded by a horde of young men! “
In January 1912 Leonard Woolf proposed to Lytton Stracheys Virginia a marriage proposal. He had been granted leave from colonial service and returned to England in June 1911. She hesitated and again suffered a depressive episode of illness requiring admission to Twickenham Hospital. Leonard was not allowed to visit her. Four months later, she agreed, though, as she wrote to Leonard, he had no physical attraction for her. She loves him to the best of his ability. His love for her was the key to her consent. The girlfriend Violet Dickinson wrote to Virginia on June 5, 1912: “I will marry Leonard Woolf. He is a Jew and does not have a penny. I’m happier than anyone ever thought possible – […] “, and the next day, she and Leonard sent a joint postcard to Lytton Strachey saying, “Ha! Ha! “, Followed by their signatures.
Roger Fry: Selfportrait , around 1928
The wedding took place on August 10, 1912 in the registry office St Pancras . Leonard retired from colonial service and pursued various odd jobs; For example, he was the secretary of his Bloomsbury friend, the painter Roger Fry, and organized for him the second post-Impressionist exhibition in the “Grafton Galleries”. He then found employment with the Charity Organization Society and worked as a reviewer of political books at The New Statesman. In 1913 he published his first novel, The Village and the Jungle , in which he processed his experiences in the colonial service.
Roger Fry : Portrait of Virginia Woolf , c. 1917
A doctor advised young spouses of children – the health of Virginia was too weak. Her depression became stronger, and on September 9, 1913, Virginia made her first attempted suicide with sleeping pills. Still, she described her marriage as happy – in Leonard she had found a sympathetic and educated husband, who could see her affectionate relationships with other women with serenity and endure her frigidity to him.
The outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, in addition to a shortage of food brought no burden for the young couple, life went on, as if nothing had happened. Virginia felt confirmed in her doubts about the male world, since Leonard found the war “meaningless and useless,” but would not resist a convocation; he was not drafted for military service due to a congenital limb shiver. 
In 1915, Virginia and Leonard moved to Hogarth House in Richmond, near London. In the same year Virginia debuted with her novel The Voyage Out (The trip out) , which was published in Duckworth & Co., the publisher of her half-brother Gerald. The Voyage Out has clear autobiographical traces.
Foundation of the Hogarth Press
Hogarth House , 34 Paradise Road, Richmond near London. House and publishing house from 1917 to 1924
Following the model founded by Roger Fry 1913 Artist Workshop Omega Workshops  Mr and Mrs Woolf in 1917 founded the publishing house The Hogarth Press . They specialized in modern literature from the UK, USA and Russia . In July 1917, the production began with the delivery of Two Stories that each contained a history of the spouse, The Mark on the Wall (The mark on the wall) of Virginia, Three Jews of Leonard Woolf. The couple set the 34-page booklet by hand. Because the Woolfs are not enough typeThey put two pages, printed them on a second-hand Minerva crucible printing press , then broke the sentence and then set the next two pages. In this way, they took a good two months to print the edition of 150 copies. Subsequently, the likewise hand- bound binding took place .
Cover of the first editionof Two Stories , 1917
The small first work of the publishing house, equipped with four woodcuts by Dora Carrington , a friend of Lytton Strachey’s, had already been ordered by 100 friends and acquaintances, the last copies were sold within two years.  One of the first works hand-set also included Prelude writer Katherine Mansfield ; Their friendship, however, was ambiguous. Mansfield played a double game: she praised Virginia opposite The Mark on the Wall , behind her back she called the work banal. By 1932, a total of 34 books were produced in his own hand. Hogarth Press was indeed increasingly professionalized, but only Virginia’s third novel, Jacob’s Room (Jacob’s Room) , could be published in the own publishing house. In his 1967 memoir published by Hogarth Press, Leonard Woolf recalls, “We printed in the pantry, tied the books in the dining room, and interviewed authors, bookbinders, and printers in a living room.” 
Shakespeare’s works in her bedroom at Monk’s House , hand-tied by Virginia Woolf
Virginia’s role in the Hogarth Press was to recruit new authors and proofread their manuscripts . Thus, on December 8, 1929, she noted in her diary: “I read & read & certainly ended a manuscript pile of 3 feet, carefully reading it; Much of it at the border, which therefore required reflection. “Leonard was responsible for the management, but he also won many authors, mainly from the political and economic issues.  Vanessa Bell designed illustrations for Virginia’s books and was responsible for the cover design of her works. The 1927 newly issued Kew Gardens was the most attractive publication in the collaboration of the sisters.
A mistake was made by the Woolfs when they rejected the novel Ulysses by James Joyce , which was offered to them in April 1918 for publication. Only the first few chapters were available at the time, but these were already too large to be set and printed by hand. Because of the obsceneThere was also no other printer in the content who took responsibility for the text. In addition, Virginia was unconvinced of the content and wrote to Lytton Strachey on April 23: “First there is a dog, the p – t, – then there’s a man who farts, and you can even be monotone on that subject – besides, I do not think that his method, which is highly developed, means much more than omitting explanations and inserting thoughts in dashes: therefore I do not believe that we will do it. ” 
Acquisition of Monk’s House
Cottage Monk’s House in Rodmell, Sussex
Lytton Strachey and Virginia Woolf, photo by Ottoline Morrell , 1923
In July 1919, the Woolf couple bought a simple cottage in Rodmell ( Sussex ) called Monk’s House ; they had bought it for £ 700 since Asheham had been terminated. In the garden stood two huge elms called by all visitors and friends of the house Virginia & Leonard . The Woolfs expanded Monk’s House with extensions, and over the years they fancied it with carpets, wallpaper, fabrics, mirrors, tiles, and screens by Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. A model for the decoration was the interiors planned by Vanessa and Duncan together by Charleston Farmhousenear Firle, six miles from Monk’s House, which they had rented in 1916. In both houses regular meetings of the “Bloomsberries” took place.
In the same year Virginia Woolf’s stories Kew Gardens (In the Botanical Garden) were published in their own publishing house and their second novel Night and Day (Day and Night) at Duckworth.
1922 appeared almost simultaneously with the Ulysses by James Joyce , her novel Jacob’s Room ( Jacobs rooms ) . In this novel, she worked, similar to Joyce, with the technique of the inner monologue and broke with this concept, the conventional narrative technique. The protagonist Jacob is very similar to her late brother Thoby. The book became a sales success, brought the author recognition in the literary avant-garde scene and invitations from eminent personalities. Leonard Woolf became editor-in-chief of the weekly Nation and was thus able to contribute to the common income.
William Strang : Lady with a Red Hat – Vita Sackville-West , 1918
In December 1922, she met the writer Vita Sackville-West , the wife of diplomat Harold Nicolson . From the friendly relationship developed a three-year close love relationship (1925-1928), which passed in friendship and survived until Virginia’s death.  It simultaneously created a business relationship: The Hogarth Press it moved Vitas works, for example, in 1926, the amendment Passenger to Tehran , as well as works of her husband Harold Nicolson, although Virginia Vitas did not appreciate working particularly and as having a “plate spring ” produced described. Her appeal was more in her masculine beauty, her noble connections and the love of adventure.
Virginia’s nephew and biographer, Quentin Bell , described the relationship: “Virginia felt like a lover: she was despondent when she felt neglected, desperate when Vita was not there, waiting impatiently for letters, needing Vitas company and living in the strange mixture of elation and despair that is characteristic of lovers – and one should think only of lovers -. ” 
Vita Sackville-West’s son, Nigel Nicolson , published his mother’s letter to her husband in his book Portrait of a Marriage from His Parents’ Letter: “I love Virginia – who would not? But […] the love of Virginia is something completely different: something mental, something spiritual, if you will, a matter of the intellect […] I am mortally afraid to cause physical feelings in it, because of the madness […] I have slept with her (twice), but that’s all. ” 
Mrs Dalloway , To the Lighthouse
Godrevy Lighthouse on the bay of St Ives
In 1924, the Woolf couple moved back to Bloomsbury and rented publishing house and apartment at Tavistock Square 52 . That same year, Virginia published her widely acclaimed essay, Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown , who critically reviewed the traditional narrative art and conceptually introduced her most important novel, Mrs Dalloway , which she submitted in 1925. Originally the novel should be called The Hours as the later film by Stephen Daldry . It was innovative narrative technique of stream-of-consciousness ( stream of consciousness)with which she represented the events through the world of thought, the moods and impressions of the various characters in the novel. This method had already been tested in the beginning in Jacob’s Room , but here perfected. Also published in 1925 was her essay collection The Common Reader , in which already published essays and reviews were published together with new works, such as the essay on the contemporary American novel.
After the appearance of Mrs Dalloway Virginia began on August 6, 1925, the writing of the novel To the Lighthouse ( to the lighthouse ) , she could, punctuated by bouts of depression, in January 1927 to complete. She originally wanted to call the work ” elegy ” and not “novel”. Leonard called him a masterpiece, and she too was happy with her work: “Good day, how beautiful some parts of The Lighthouse are! Soft & supple, & deep, I mean, & not a single word wrong, sometimes for a few pages. ”  The Lighthouse is an autobiographical novel dealing with the history of the Stephen family. The transcript came oneNear psychoanalysis , the therapy consisted of narration and the domination of parents over them. It’s a kind of ghost story, the story of a haunted house, the Talland House in St Ives, though the novel is based on the Isle of Skye . The dark feelings of the protagonist Mrs Ramsay about loneliness and death were also Virginia’s feelings. 
Knole House in 1880
In the spring and summer of 1928, Virginia and Vita undertook a longer journey through France. In October of the same year Orlandoappeared . The main character Orlando lives from the 16th to the 20th century, changes her gender from man to woman in adulthood and is at the end of the journey through time a poet. This humorous novel is considered Virginia’s declaration of love to Vita Sackville-West, whose personality is reflected in Orlando . Historical details were taken from Virginia’s Vitara’s 1922 book, Knole and the Sackvilles , in Vitas birthplace, Knole House in Kentand the story of Sackville’s is portrayed. Virginia herself describes the book as cheerful and easy to read; writing it was a vacation for her as a writer and did not trouble her with other works. In Nigel Nicolson’s biography of his parents, he describes Orlando as “the longest and most charming love letter in literature.”  Visitors to Knole House, largely owned by the National Trust since 1946 , can now admire Orlando’s original manuscript exhibited in the Great Hall . 
The essay A room by itself
Singer Sargent : Ethel Smyth , 1901
The essay A Room of One’s Own ( A Room of One’s Own , or a private room ) was published in October 1929th The clever and witty treatise on the oppressive conditions under which women in the past had to produce literature, and in which Woolf describes Shakespeare’s fictional poetry sister Judith, became one of the most cited texts of the women’s movement:
“[…] And if each of us has five hundred a pound a year and a room to ourselves; when we are used to freedom and the courage to write exactly what we think; […] then this opportunity will come and the dead poet, who was Shakespeare’s sister, will accept the body she has so often discarded. ”  These are the basic material conditions under which women could produce literature as successfully as Men. She also formulated some views on artistic creativity that guided her own writing. The book became a success; Within half a year 22,000 copies were sold in England and America.
Composer and suffragette Ethel Smyth , in January 1930, solicited Virginia’s participation in a BBC show entitled Point of Views on the occasion of the release of A Room of One’s Own and explained her admiration for the essay as an important contribution to the emancipation movement. It came to a personal relationship and extensive correspondence with the 24 years older Ethel Smyth. At this time, Vita Sackville-West moved to Sissinghurst and devoted herself with her husband Harold Nicolson the design of their later world-famous garden. 
The waves and flush
1931 appeared The Waves ( Waves ) which, according to Mrs Dalloway and To the Lighthouse is the third and last of their so-called experimental novels. Virginia conceived The Waves concurrently with the novel The Lighthouse and wrote it in parallel, interrupted by the transcript of Orlando . The work on it came to an almost unbearable effort, which weighed heavily on her health. In a montage technique, the book spans six human lives, from childhood to old age, inserted in the course of a beautiful summer day. The reading public accepted in contrast to the criticsThe waves unconditionally, and after a month already could be printed the second edition.
The 1932 novel The Flush , which tells of the adventures of the Cocker Spaniel of writer Elizabeth Barrett Browning in London and Florence, is a mixture of some facts and a lot of imagination. Flush had the highest first edition of all her works and reached after a few months, a circulation of 50,000 copies in England and the United States .
Freshwater , The Years and Three Guineas
Julia Margaret Cameron’s photo portrait of her niece Julia Jackson, mother of Virginia Woolf, from 1867
In 1935, Virginia’s only play Freshwater was performed in Vanessa Bell’s London studio. In it she addressed the life story of her great aunt, the Victorian photographer Julia Margaret Cameron . The performance was in front of friends: Vanessa Bell played Mrs Cameron, Leonard Woolf Mr Cameron, and Duncan Grant took on the role of George Frederic Watts . Vanessa’s children Julian and Angelica Bell were Lord Tennyson and Ellen Terry, respectively .
Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight
The place Freshwater is located on the Isle of Wight , where the Camerons had a residence.  As early as 1926 had Virginia with Roger Fry published by Harcourt, Brace, New York, a collection of Cameron’s photographs published under the title: Julia Margaret Cameron. Victorian Photographs of Famous Men & Fair Women . The rest of the year was spent by the Woolf couple on a European tour to cure Virginia of their renewed mental illness.
Virginia’s next novel – her most extensive work – The Years ( The year ) , the story of the officer’s family Pargiter and their curricula vitae, four daughters, appeared in 1937; She had already begun working on it in October 1932 under the working title The Pargiters . She returned in the uncomplicated narrative in the tradition of English novels, which she had not used since night and day . The writing was difficult and the publication put pressure on her. The years , however, became a sales success; The English edition was published in one edition of 18,000 copies, in America he became a bestseller with 50,000 copies sold in the first year.
The collected Virginia analytical material about misogyny of society flowed not only in The Years one but was also found in the feminist essay Three Guineas ( Three Guineas )again,  which was published in June 1938th In this essay, shortly before the Second World War, it connects patriarchal society with militarism , fascism and war. The working title for the already planned 1935 essay was On Being Despised (If one is despised) . Virginia did not want women’s integration, but gender equality: “We stand for the rights of all – of all men and women – to respect the great principles of justice, equality and freedom in their person”.  Her friends thought the essay was unnecessarily polemical because it lacks humor, but it should set another milestone in the fight against sexism . She refused the honorary doctorate from the University of Liverpool in 1939 because she was critical of the “academic machine” all her life.
The writer John Lehmann , editor of the Hogarth Press from 1931 to September 1932, bought in March 1938 in the publisher and took over Virginia shares. However, she continued to participate in the programming of the publishing house. Lehmann worked with Leonard Woolf together as managing director until 1946 in the Hogarth Press. He then founded his own publishing house, “John Lehmann Limited”, with his sister Rosamond .
World War II and death
After the United Kingdom’s declaration of war on Germany on September 3, 1939, the Woolfs decided to live in Monk’s House in the future and travel to the publisher in London only twice a month. In September 1940, the house on Mecklenburgh Square 37 , in which was since 1939 their London apartment and also the Hogarth Press had their headquarters, heavily damaged in an air raid by the German Air Force by bombs. The Hogarth Press had to be outsourced to Letchworth Garden City .
Virginia Woolf’s farewell letter to her husband Leonard
In May 1940, following Germany’s invasion of the Netherlands and Belgium, the Woolfs resolved to quit life together in the event of a German invasion of Britain, as Leonard Woolf was Jewish and Socialist. As a precaution, they got poison and hoarded gas in the garage.
On July 25, 1940, Virginia Woolf’s biography was published about the painter and gallery owner Roger Fry, the friend of the Bloomsbury era, who had died in 1934. After 1941 her last novel Between the acts ( between the filing ) had finished, she fell into a deep again Depression . She feared that the psychotic episodes of the past would recur in which she heard voices and was unable to work and read. On March 27, 1941, Leonard Woolf took his wife to a friendly doctor in Brighton to discuss the treatment options. One day later, on March 28, Virginia approached near the river Ouse near RodmellLewes the suicide . As she was able to swim very well, she put a big stone in her coat to prevent any self-rescue. Her body was found only after three weeks, on April 18th. She left two farewell letters, one to her sister Vanessa and one to her husband. This began with the sentence: “Dearest, I feel with certainty that I’m going crazy again.” The conclusion was:
“Everything, except the certainty of your goodness, has left me. I can no longer ruin your life. I do not think two people could have been happier than we have been. ” 
Leonard Woolf buried her ashes under the two large elms in the garden, whose branches had been swallowed and called by them Leonardand Virginia . He also had a blackboard attached with a quote from The Waves :
“I will meet you, undefeated and unbowed, O death!” 
Leonard Woolf died in 1969 at the age of 88 years. He was buried like his wife under the elms at Monk’s House.
In the garden of Monk’s House, which has been managed by the National Trust since 1980 , busts of Virginia Woolf and Leonard Woolf and commemorative plaques commemorate the extraordinary writer and publisher couple.
Leonard Woolf’s bust by Charlotte Hewer
Monk’s House: Garden situation with the wall marked by busts and memorial plaques of the Woolfs
Virginia Woolf’s bust by Stephen Tomlin
Virginia Woolf is next to Joseph Conrad , James Joyce and DH Lawrence one of the most important authors of modern English narrative literature . Above all, her prose work seeks to capture the background and realities in the consciousness of her novel forms with new literary means of design. In addition to her numerous essays , the experimental and psychological novel is the writer’s main work. Woolf uses a montage technique : In the constant change of outer and inner time, environment and nature, she lets past and present events into her texts in a stream of sensations incorporated.
The experimental novel
With Jacobs Zimmer , who is considered by Woolf interpreters as the author’s first “real” experimental novel, she begins to portray the complexity of life in a rhythmic sequence of fleeting sensory impressions, thought fragments, and gestures. Like her contemporaries Joyce and Dorothy Richardson , who followed similar approaches, she succeeds, with the help of the inner monologue , in representing these impressions as they do in the stream of consciousnessemerge from the characters of the novel. However, no development takes place: the characters remain trapped in the search for identity between reality and the dream world. Thus the loneliness of man in modern mass society becomes an essential theme of Woolf’s novel.
Inspired by Joyce Woolf achieved a tension ( Suspense ) by facing their own perspective to the associations of her characters as a “counterpoint”. This is particularly evident in the expressionist imagery she spends on landscape descriptions, which stand in contrast to the pointed character studies of the cool, often soullessly drawn city-dwellers. Woolf makes use of stylistic devices that are similar to those of a writer used by the post-Impressionists in the fine arts, and that are particularly evident in the works of Vincent van Gogh, who was particularly admired. 
In Mrs Dalloway she refined the narrative technique she had worked out in Jacob’s room . The novel is considered a masterpiece of modern narrative art and is often compared to Joyce ‘ Ulysses and Marcel Proust’s In Search of Lost Time . In this work, Woolf primarily uses the latest insights of psychoanalysis and refers ironically to Freud’s levels ofconsciousness. In the run-up to the novel, she had in her 1924 essay written Mr Bennett and Mrs Brownproclaiming that it is not the job of a novelist to “preach doctrines, sing songs, or glorify the British Empire,” but “fathom the psyche of man.” Critically acclaimed, the essay was provocatively directed against Bennett , Galsworthy, and Wells’ ” Edwardian Techniques .” 
The technique of the stream of consciousness introduced in Jacob’s room extended her to the component of the “arbitrariness” in Mrs. Dalloway : The main character is thus no longer objectively describable as in the traditional novel, but is defined only by the reflection of the (changing) secondary characters and their perception , The act only learns about the actor’s awareness of the plot. The perception restricts Woolf, like Joyce, to a certain period of time, in the case of Mrs Dalloway to one day, with which Woolf introduces another stylistic device characteristic of her work: the continuous motif of the passing time, that in a wave-likeCourse of the stream of consciousness – alternating between present and past – is experienced. Stylistically, Woolf proceeds with the narrative style and alternates fluently between direct speech with descriptive action and the experienced speech in the inner monologue. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf uses tempus fugit motifs (burned-out candles or beating clocks) to create significant symbolism , which should increasingly be repeated in her late work. To the Lighthouse ( to the lighthouse )continues this psychological narrative technique in linguistic perfection: The main character is reflected in the stream of consciousness of the other characters, a traditional plot is omitted, the time continuum is divided into three parts. The lighthouse itself becomes an ambiguous symbol that can be interpreted as an assimilating “masculine” superego with groundbreaking consistency or as a place of fixed norms and values and in contrast to the ever-changing “feminine” sea as a balancing force for both the subconsciousFlow of things as well as for harmony, withdrawal and new beginning can stand. Woolf continually contrasts these two characters throughout the work, bringing them together in the final sequence of the novel, in the painting by painter Lily Briscoe. The novel is considered one of Virginia Woolf’s “most composing and linguistic achievements.” 
The most radical rupture with all traditional narrative technique takes Woolf finally in The Waves ( Waves ) : The writer omitted both a reporting narrator as a tangible act or a particular venue and subjects the course of a specified symbol afflicted cycle of day and year. The work consists exclusively of the inner monologues of the six protagonists, who in turn are dominated by certain characteristics representative of a period of life or reflect this. Critics of the book as “artificial and unsatisfactory form and style experiment” rated and found late recognition as a consequent conclusion of Woolf’s Erzählexperiments. The novel The Wave is in many ways more philosophical than it has been perceived by the readers’ audience, and Virginia Woolf often expressed it desperately.
In her last novel Between the acts ( between acts ) , which was created against the backdrop of World War II, Woolf is a comic and critical analogy to the animal kingdom ago: by the actors in a village theater performance with carnivalesque provides -animalischen traits,  raises She questions the descent, the similarities and the differences between man and animal, and seeks the answer to creativity and the gift of language. It keeps the reader with the central question about humanitya mirror and leaves open the answer. In doing so, she again applies the trick of reflection: the actual action takes place “between the acts” or “between the lines”. Once again the action takes place in one day, and again it uses the symbolism: this time the bird motif is preferred. The bird symbolizes both beauty and destruction.  The posthumously published work combines prose with poetry and dialogues and shows Woolf’s continuing effort to expand the scope of the novel.
In her ironic, often critical essays, Virginia Woolf favors writers such as Jane Austen , George Eliot, and Dorothy Wordsworth . Especially Jane Austen, whose work has often been compared to her own, fascinated Woolf, as Austen’s biography, under initially carefree omens, resembles her own. Both works were written at the end of a literary epoch and should mark a new one. Austen died early, at the peak of her creative career: for Woolf, who was self-doubting, Austen’s brief life’s accomplishments embodied in his formal perfection a self-determined innocence that their own work (and life) did not possess. In 1925 she dedicated Jane Austen in her essay collection The Common Readera chapter and honored her with sentimental words as “The perfect artist among women, who are just immortal, who just as they are beginning to feel confidence in their own success.” (“The perfect artist among women, the writer whose books are immortal died just as they began to take confidence in their own success. “) 
Among Woolf critics, the essay written in 1924 Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown is one of the most revealing essays of the writer, as he not only breaks with the traditionalists of English literature – especially Arnold Bennett gets caught in the crossfire of their criticism – but also insights into the Character design and granted in the handling of the author with identities : The fictional Mrs Brown represents as Woolf’s alter ego, although the position of her creator remains as a reflexively perceptible person still puzzling. Woolf does not give her Mrs. Brown any specific trait: she remains “arbitrary” like many other characters in her work. So Woolf denies the “real characters”the Edwardian . Martin Walser calls these characters “Woolfast everyday life covers that you can not get hold of, at best, you can approach them” and refers to the multiple design of the Orlando . 
Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown reflected on the impressive first Post-Impressionists exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists by Roger Fry in London “Grafton Galleries” the end of 1910, which became a cultural event. Woolf dated this event to a cultural paradigm shift : “On or about december 1910 human character changed,”  she wrote in the essay, transferring the dawn of painting into modernity to literature: the epochal replacement of the Edwardians by the Bloomsberries and the avant-garde Vortizists around Ezra Pound . 
The most cited text of the new women’s movement , Woolf ‘s 1929 essay A Room of One’s Own , was first translated into German in 1978. Woolf already anticipated the thesis of the 1968 movement on the political character of the private.
Diaries and letters
Virginia Woolf had kept a systematic journal since her childhood and from 1915 onwards . Parts of it were first published in 1953. 1977 to 1984 was the publication of the entire records in five volumes. Their extensive correspondence was published, between 1975 and 1980 appeared six volumes. Diaries and letters are now available in German translation. Many readers consider this estate to be at least as important as the works published during their lifetime. They reveal that Virginia was suffering from depression when writing her texts, for example while working on Mrs Dalloway: “And then again, the further the manuscript grows, I have the old fear of it. I will read it & find it pale. […] But if this book proves anything, then that I can only write in this way & and will always stick with it, but continue exploring & thank God I’ll never be bored for a moment. But this slight depression – where does it come from? ”  A similarly weak self-confidence she showed on the occasion of the publication of her books. Often, the fear of negative criticism and insecurity about their own work sparked episodes of illness.
“It is writing, that gives me my proportion.”
– Virginia Woolf in her diary of March 28, 1929 
Virginia Woolf’s work was hardly known in her lifetime beyond the circle of writers of the English-speaking cultural area. Since the 1970s, it has increasingly inspired various social and emancipatory movements in Europe and the US; as a result, the literary work and its author increasingly attracted public interest.
Effects during lifetime [ edit | Edit ]
Eliot and Woolf. Photo of Ottoline Morrell , 1924.
In her native land, Virginia Woolf, the daughter of a well-known cleric and literary man, early became the focus of the English press through the scandalous dreadnought stroke ; at the latest from her debut novel, her own essayhaften reviews and Hogarth Press publications of writers friends, such as TS Eliot’s Poems (1919), she was perceived as a writer and publisher of a larger readership. 
Outside of English-speaking cultures, however, Virginia Woolf’s work remained largely unknown or at least difficult to access. In 1929 Klaus Manndiscussed the German edition of Mrs. Dalloway published under the title “A Woman of Fifty” and reviewed the novel as a “life-long work” and “most radical 20th century”. 
The writer Elio Vittorini , a literary representative of Italian neorealism , received Woolfs Mrs Dalloway in his 1931 published collection Piccola borghesia and transferred their descriptions of the English upper middle class on the Neapolitan petty bourgeoisie , the so-called “small bourgeoisie “. 
Perception through emancipatory movements
Portrait of Virginia Woolf as street art in São Paulo , Brazil(2007)
In search of a literary justification for their nature-oriented pursuit of (mostly sexual) liberation, niche cultures and freethinkers, such as followers of neo-paganism or hippies in Anglo-American space, often sought random set pieces from Woolf’s writings. Among other things, they referred to Woolf’s acquaintance with Rupert Brooke or reflected on the general informality of the Bloomsbury Group, which had anticipated the open sexuality of the proclaimed in the 1960s ” Polyamory “. 
From the lesbian and gay movement and the later LGBT activists, Virginia Woolf became known to the author for her carefully crafted androgynous female characters with her multi-faceted psychology, the playful transformations of (gender) identities in Mrs Dalloway , Orlando and The Waves, and her distanced sexuality a literary leader and the authority of “female writing”, although Woolf does not fit into any general gender position. As the main female protagonist of “Bloomsbury” and her protest of the “Victorians against Victorianism,” she shaped the image of emancipation . 
The canon of the modern Anglo-American university novel after 1945 developed an increased interest in the avant-garde psychological narrative attitude of Woolf’s work as well as its socio-critical and linguistic content. From the 1970s, this interest continued to flow through isolated intellectual papers, seminars, and scholarly symposia, and has now manifested itself as the coordinating English-language network with the founding of the International Virginia Woolf Society in Toronto . Supported by the Modern Language AssociationHere, current research results on the complex life and work of the writer and their influence on the modern language are collected and examined. 
Effects in German-speaking countries
Christiaan Tonnis : Virginia Woolf , 1998
In the German-speaking world of the post-war era Virginia Woolfs work was initially known only to a “literary elite” and was perceived in the 1970s and 1980s by parts of the women’s movement, whereupon the “identification with weakness […] as a guiding theme of Woolf reception” by parts The motto of the women’s movement, “reducing women to being victims”, was explained by Ingrid Strobl in the 1980 Emma . In the same essay she made a deliberately exaggerated comparison with the younger American writer colleague Sylvia Plathwho also committed suicide and had to fail in the role of the “female genius”: “[…] under the cursed burden of being ingenious, the delicate woman had to collapse, even the dear, poor sister Plath was fated how could it be otherwise – it is not the nature of the woman to dance out of line, to do great things – like male! ” 
From 1975 to 1980, Nigel Nicolson published letters from Virginia Woolf to Hogarth Press,  which juxtapose a biographically authentic context in their subjective selection, with Nicolson in her 2000 biography Virginia Woolf, in addition to her work description and important role in the women’s movement, appearing latent Anti-Semitism and xenophobia were not spared.
Dora Carrington : Portrait E. M. Forster , 1924/25
In her diaries, Virginia used to refer to her husband’s unloved family as “the Jews,” and she occasionally asked at table, “Give the Jew his food,” referring to her husband Leonard.  English professor Hermione Lee , in her profound 1996 biography, reports that anti-Semitism was widespread in the English upper classes until the 1930s, and she cites Virginia Woolf’s regrets over her conduct towards Leonard and his family in a letter to her friend Ethel Smyth of August 2, 1930: “How I hated to marry a Jew […] – I was such a snob !” 
EM Forster , at times a Bloomsbury member, considered the influence of the women’s movement on Virginia Woolf’s work ambivalent. In a lecture, the 1941 Speech Lecture at the University of Cambridge , he praised the “gorgeous brilliance” of A Room of One’s Own inspired by the women’s movement , but criticized “that the women’s movement is also guilty of the most miserable of their books – the contentious ‘Three Guineas’ – and cause for a series of less good passages in ‘Orlando’. “In addition, Forster accused the writer of a stereotypicalPoint of view: “She was convinced that society was made for men, that the main occupation of men is to shed blood, to earn money, to hand out orders and to wear uniforms, and that none of these occupations are admirable.” [58 ]
Bust at Tavistock Square , London 2004. (Cast after Stephen Tomlin’s bust from 1931)
Bronze plaque on the Library Way in New York
Woolf found its way into the visual arts of the 20th century. The feminist artist Judy Chicago dedicated to her in her work The Dinner Party one of the 39 place settings at the table. 
The Indian author and translator Ruth Vanita introduces Virginia Woolf to Sappho and the Virgin Mary: Same – Sex Love and the English Literary Imagination (“Between Men – Between Women – Lesbian and Gay Studies) as a” Sapphic author in dialogue with her contemporaries Ancestors “. 
On Virginia Woolf’s 125th birthday, Fischer Publishers published a comprehensive selection of their letters, which, as Eva Menasse reviewed in the period , reflects a “Virginia Woolf without Shackles” in whose letters “[…] there is no trace of her torture Writing the novels, which were often journeys to the limits of their mental health. “Moreover, Die Zeit noted their pointed letters as” satirical miniatures, “which both show the entertaining, humorous side of the Virginia Woolf as opposed to their” intellectual discourses ” also their tendency to fall for gossip and to have fun. 
In New York, since the late 1990s, the Library Way has run on East 41st Street between Fifth Avenue and Park Avenue to the Stephen A. Schwarzman Building , the largest building in the New York Public Library (NYPL). Embedded in the pavement of the pedestrian walkway are 96 rectangular bronze plaques dedicated to eminent writers and quotations from their works. Virginia Woolf has a plaque and quote from the essay The Leaning Tower : “If you do not tell the truth about yourself you can not tell about other people.” 
On May 2, 2013, King’s College London announced that a new college build in the fall would be named the Virginia Woolf Building . 
An exhibition of exhibits on Woolf’s life and work ran at the National Portrait Gallery in London from 10 July to 26 October 2014 entitled “Virginia Woolf: Art, Life and Vision.” 
In 2015, 82 international literary critics and scientists selected four of their novels as one of the 100 most significant British novels . To the Lighthouse ( the Lighthouse ) ranked No. 2, Mrs Dalloway Platz 3, The Waves ( The waves ) 16th and Orlando place 65. George Eliot’s Middlemarch leads the list. 
Play and Film Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Edward Albee’s play Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? ( Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? ) Premiered on October 13, 1962 at the Billy Rose Theater in New York . The idea for this came to Albee around 1953 or 1954 according to his own statement in the face of a series of graffitiIn the washroom of a bar: “One night I was there for a beer, and I saw” Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? “smeared on a mirror, probably with soap. When I started to write the piece, I did not forget this line. And of course, “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” means the (nursery rhyme) “Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf” … who fears a life without false illusions. And I thought it was a pretty university-typical intellectual joke. ” 
In 1966, followed by a US-American film directed by Mike Nichols . The main actors were Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton .
Cover of the first edition of Orlando , Hogarth Press , 1928
· 1915: The Voyage Out . Duckworth, London – The drive out . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1991, ISBN 3-596-10694-X
· 1917: The Mark on the Wall . Hogarth Press, Richmond – The mark on the wall . In: narratives . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1965
· 1919: Kew Gardens . Hogarth Press, Richmond – In the Botanical Garden . In: narratives . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1965
· 1919: Night and Day . Duckworth, London – night and day . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1984, ISBN 3-10-092510-6
· 1921: Monday or Tuesday . Hogarth Press, Richmond – Monday or Tuesday . In: narratives . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1965
· 1922: Jacob’s Room . Hogarth Press, Richmond – Jacob’s room . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2000, ISBN 3-596-14578-3
· 1925: Mrs. Dalloway . Hogarth Press, London – Mrs. Dalloway . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2003, ISBN 3-596-14002-1
· 1925: The Common Reader (1). Hogarth Press, London – The Ordinary Reader (1). Essays. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1989, ISBN 3-10-092570-X
· 1926: (Editor along with Roger Fry) Julia Margaret Cameron. Victorian Photographs of Famous Men & Fair Women . New York: Harcourt, Brace
· 1927: To the Lighthouse . Hogarth Press, London – To the lighthouse . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1993, ISBN 3-596-12019-5
· 1928: Orlando . Hogarth Press, London – Orlando – a biography . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1992, ISBN 3-596-11331-8
· 1929: A Room of One’s Own . Hogarth Press, London – A private room . Essay. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2001, ISBN 3-596-14939-8
· 1931: The Waves . Hogarth Press, London – The waves . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1994, ISBN 3-596-12184-1
· 1932 The Common Reader (2) – The Ordinary Reader (2). Essays. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1990, ISBN 3-596-13649-0
· 1933: Flush. A biography . Hogarth Press, London – Flush – The story of a famous dog . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1994, ISBN 3-596-12416-6
· 1937: The Years . Hogarth Press, London – The Years . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2002, ISBN 3-596-15521-5
· 1938: Three Guineas . Hogarth Press London – Three Guineas . In: A private room / Three guineas . Two essays. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2001, ISBN 3-10-092573-4
· 1940: Roger Fry. A biography . Hogarth Press, London; Harcourt Publishers Ltd College Publishers 1976, ISBN 0-15-678520-X
· 1941: Between the Acts . Hogarth Press, London (posthumously published in July 1941) – Between the files . Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1999, ISBN 3-596-14341-1
· The Essays of Virginia Woolf . 6 volumes. Edited by Andrew McNeillie. Hogarth Press, London 1986-2011
· Moments of Being . Unpublished Autobiographical Writings. Edited by Jeanne Schulkind, Brighton 1976; German Moments. (Sketches of the past) Sketched memories . German publishing house institute, Stuttgart 1981 and Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt, ISBN 3-596-25789-1
· A Passionate Apprentice: The Early Journals 1897-1909 . Edited by Mitchell A. Leaska. Hogarth Press, London 1990
· The Diary of Virginia Woolf . 5 volumes. Edited by Anne Olivier Bell. Hogarth Press, London 1977-1984
· The Letters of Virginia Woolf . 6 volumes. Edited by Nigel Nicolson and Joanna Trautmann. Hogarth Press, London 1975-1980
· Letters 1. 1888-1927 . Edited by Klaus Reichert and Brigitte Walitzek. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2006, ISBN 978-3-10-092556-5
· Letters 2nd 1928-1941 . Edited by Klaus Reichert and Brigitte Walitzek. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2006, ISBN 978-3-10-092564-0
· Diaries, vol. 1. 1915-1919 . Edited by Klaus Reichert. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1990, ISBN 3-10-092552-1
· Diaries, vol. 2. 1920-1924 . Edited by Klaus Reichert. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1994, ISBN 3-10-092555-6
· Diaries, vol. 3. 1925-1930 . Edited by Klaus Reichert. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1999, ISBN 3-10-092559-9
· Diaries, Vol. 4. 1931-1935 . Edited by Klaus Reichert. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2003, ISBN 3-10-092562-9
· Diaries, Vol. 5. 1936-1941 . Edited by Klaus Reichert, Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2008, ISBN 978-3-10-092566-4
· Moments of existence. Autobiographical sketches . Translated by Brigitte Walitzek, ed. by Klaus Reichert, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-10-092522-0
· Letter to a young poet. Translated by Tanja Handels. Steidl Verlag , Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-86-930947-7
Virginia Woolf wrote about 500 more essays, reviews and prose sketches.
When choosing German reading, it should be noted that Virginia Woolf’s works have been offered in new translations since 1989. They were edited and (re) commented by Klaus Reichert. 
German literature and translations from English:
· Susanne Amrain : So secret and familiar. Virginia Woolf and Vita Sackville-West . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1998, ISBN 3-518-39311-1
· Quentin Bell : Virginia Woolf. A biography . Suhrkamp Verlag , Frankfurt a. M. 1982, ISBN 3-518-37253-X
· Luise Berg-Ehlers: The Gardens of Virginia Woolf . Nicolai Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-87584-378-9
· Louise DeSalvo: Virginia Woolf. The effects of sexual abuse on her life and work . Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2002, ISBN 3-596-10566-8
· Alexandra Harris: Virginia Woolf , from English by Tanja Handels and Ursula Wulfekamp. LSD in the Steidl publishing house, Goettingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-86930-835-7
· Jürgen Klein : Virginia Woolf: Genius – Tragedy – Emancipation , Heyne Verlag, Munich 1984, 2nd ed. 1992, ISBN 3-453-55115-X
· Hermione Lee : Virginia Woolf. A life . German by Holger Fliessbach. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 1999. As Taschenbuch 2006: ISBN 3-596-17374-4
· Nigel Nicolson : Portrait of a marriage. Harold Nicolson and Vita Sackville-West. Ullstein Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-548-30387-0
· Nigel Nicolson: Virginia Woolf . Claassen Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-546-00293-8
· Frances Spalding: Virginia Woolf. Life, art & visions ; Original title: Virginia Woolf: Art, Life and Vision . From the English by Ursula Wulfekamp in cooperation with Matthias Wolf. Sieveking, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-944874-46-3
· George Spater & Ian Parsons. Portrait of an unusual marriage. Virginia & Leonard Woolf [= A marriage of true minds ]. From the English by Barbara Scriba-Sethe. Foreword by Quentin Bell. Revised revision. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2002, ISBN 3-596-13445-5 . The original English edition was published in 1977 by Jonathan Cape Ltd./The Hogarth Press, London. George Spater cataloged the Woolf archive. Ian Parsons was friend and business partner Leonard Woolfs after the merger of Hogarth Press with Chatto & Windus
· Ursula Voss: Bertrand Russell and Lady Ottoline Morrell. A love against philosophy . Rowohlt • Berlin publishing house, Reinbek 1999, ISBN 3-87134-310-2
· Werner Waldmann: Virginia Woolf: with self-testimonies and picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek, 12th Edition 2006, ISBN 3-499-50323-9
· Helmut Winter: Virginia and Leonard Woolf . Rowohlt • Berlin publishing house, Berlin, 1999, ISBN 3-87134-352-8
· Leonard Woolf : My life with Virginia. Memories . Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2003, ISBN 3-596-25686-0
· Caroline Zoob: The Virginia Woolf’s Garden : Source of Inspiration from a dedicated writer [= Virginia Woolf’s Garden. Country Planting at a Writer’s Retreat ], photographs by Caroline Arber, foreword by Cecil Woolf, translated by Claudia Arlinghaus. German publishing house, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-421-03937-8
· Thomas C. Caramagno: The Flight of the Mind: Virginia Woolf’s Art and Manic-Depressive Illness . University of California Press; New Ed edition, Ewing, NJ 1996, ISBN 0-520-20504-9
· Anthony Curtis: Virginia Woolf: Bloomsbury and Beyond , London: House Books, 2006, ISBN 1-904950-23-X
· Jane Goldman: The Feminist Aesthetics of Virginia Woolf: Modernism, Post-Impressionism and the Politics of the Visual . Cambridge University Press, Reissue 2001, ISBN 0-521-79458-7
· Stefanie Heine: Visible Words and Chromatic Pulse. Virginia Woolf’s Writing, Impressionist Painting, Maurice Blanchot’s Image . Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3851327427 .
· Kay Redfield Jamison: Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and The Artistic Temperament . The Free Press, New York 1993, ISBN 0-02-916030-8
· Susan Sellers: Vanessa and Virginia . [Fictional Biography]. Two Ravens, 2008; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston 2009, ISBN 978-0-15-101474-3
· Jean Moorcroft Wilson: Virginia Woolf and Anti-Semitism , Cecil Woolf, London 1995, ISBN 1-897967-40-3 .
· NC Thakur: The Symbolism of Virginia Woolf . Oxford University Press, London 1965
This book served as a template for the film The Hours :
· Michael Cunningham: The hours . btb publishing house 2001, ISBN 3-442-72629-8 . Three seemingly independent storylines show Virginia Woolf in the 1920s, Laura Brown in California in the 1950s, and Clarissa Vaughan in New York in the 1990s. They are linked to the figure of Mrs. Dalloway created by Virginia Woolf.
· Freak Orlando is a German feature film by Ulrike Ottinger from 1981, based on Virginia Woolf’s novel Orlando .
· To the Lighthouse: Movie from 1983 starring Rosemary Harris , Michael Gough , Suzanne Berti and Kenneth Branagh .
· Orlando after the novel by Virginia Woolf. Written and directed by Sally Potter . With Tilda Swinton (Orlando), Billy Zane (Shelmerdine), Lothaire Bluteau (Khan), Quentin Crisp(Queen Elizabeth I), Heathcote Williams (Nick Greene), Charlotte Valandrey (Sasha). Country: Great Britain, Russia, France, Italy, Netherlands. Year: 1992.
· Mrs. Dalloway . After the novel by Virginia Woolf. Director: Marleen Gorris . Book: Eileen Atkings. Camera: Sue Gibson. Music: Ilona Sekacz. With Vanessa Redgrave ,Natascha McElhone , Rupert Graves , Michael Kitchen , Alan Cox , Lena Headey , Sarah Bade (older Sally – Lady Rosseter). Country: GB / NL. Year: 1997.
· The Hours – From Eternity to Eternity . After the novel by Michael Cunningham. Book: David Hare . With Nicole Kidman , Julianne Moore , Meryl Streep , Stephen Dillane ,Miranda Richardson , George Loftus, Charley Ramm, Julian Bell, Sophie Wyburd, Lyndsey Marshal, Linda Bassett, Christian Coulson , Michael Culkin, John C. Reilly , Jack Rovello, Richie Brown, Toni Collette (Kitty Barlowe),Margo Martindale (Mrs. Latch), Colin Stinton (hotel employee), Ed Harris (Richard Brown), Allison Janney (Sally Lester), Claire Danes , Jeff Daniels (Louis Waters), Eileen Atkins (Barbara), Carmen De Lavallade (Clarissa’s neighbor), Daniel Brocklebank (Rodney). Country: USA. Year: 2002.
· Orlando. A complete reading of the novel. Spokeswoman: Sissy Höfferer . 8 CDs, total runtime 525 minutes. Der hörverlag / Sender Freies Berlin 2002, ISBN 978-3-89584-591-8
· The waves. Reading with Gert Westphal , Gustl Haneke and others. 2 CDs, total running time 102 minutes. The Audio Verlag / SWR, 2005, ISBN 978-3-89813-288-6
· Mrs. Dalloway. Abridged reading of the novel. Speaker: Angela Winkler . 5 CDs, total running time approx. 358 minutes. Der hörverlag / Sender Freies Berlin, 2001, ISBN 978-3-89584-547-5
· Sketch of the past. read by Sophie Rois . 3 CDs, total running time 204 minutes. Argon Verlag / Hessischer Rundfunk, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8398-1237-2
· To the lighthouse. Spoken by Rosel Zech . 5 CDs. Publisher L & M, 2002, ISBN 978-3-89849-646-9
· A private room. Full reading by Erika Pluhar . 4 CDs. RH Audio Editions, 2007, ISBN 978-3-86604-520-0
· Jacob’s room . Radio play in four parts. With Friedhelm Ptok , Britta Hammelstein, Wiebke Puls , Sylvana Krappatsch , Annette Paulmann, Benedikt Lückenhaus, Alexander Lückenhaus, Andrea Wenzl, Caroline Ebner, Sabine Kastius, Hans Kremer , Johannes Zirner, Stefan Merki. Translation and editing: Gaby Hartel, composition: Jakob Diehl, director: Katja Langenbach. BR radio play and media art 2012. As podcast / download in the BR radio play pool.  Hörbuchedition (4 CDs): The Hörverlag. ISBN 978-3844511192 .
· Orlando . A biography . Radio play in six parts. With Gabriel Raab , Vera Weisbrod , Wiebke Puls , Paul Herwig , Brigitte Hobmeier , Hans Kremer u, Georgia steel. a. Translation and editing: Gaby Hartel, composition: Ulrike Haage , director: Katja Langenbach. BR – radio drama and media art 2013. As podcast / download in BR radio play pool.  Hörbuchedition (6 CDs): The Hörverlag. ISBN 978-3844513806 .
· To the lighthouse . Radio play in three parts. With Zoe Hutmacher, Wiebke Puls , Irina Wanka (narrators), Krista Posch (Mrs Ramsay), Walter Hess (Mr Ramsay), Caroline Ebner (Lily Briscoe), Shenja Lacher (Charles Tansley), Julia Loibl (Prue), Christian Löber ( Andrew), Peter Brombacher (Mr. Banks), Moritz Zehner. Arrangement: Gaby Hartel, composition: Ulrike Haage , director: Katja Langenbach. BR radio drama and media art 2016. As podcast / download in the BR radio play pool.  Audiobook Edition (3 CDs): Radio Play. The audio publisher. Munich 2017. ISBN 978-3-8445-2553-3 .