2. Point One
3. Point Two
4. Point Three
Of course depending on the length and breadth of your paper you may have more than three main points. However by using this structure it will make envisioning your paper easier.
An Introduction should answer three questions
1. What am I talking about in this paper?
By answering this question you let the reader know what the subject of the paper is. For example, if your paper were about a particular book, your answer to this question would give the title, author, and any other necessary information.
2. How am I going to talk about it?
This is where you let the reader know how your paper is organized. Here you very briefly introduce your main points or the evidence that will prove your point.
3. What am I going to prove in this paper?
This is the dreaded THESIS STATEMENT. The thesis is usually the last sentence in the first paragraph and it clearly states the argument or point you are making in your paper.
The Body consists of everything between your intro and conclusion and it is where you discuss your three main points. A good starting place is to envision that each point is a separate paragraph (or in a long paper each point might be a section). In each paragraph you:
· Introduce your point
· Explain your point
· Give supporting evidence (this is where quotes go!)
· Explain how the point and evidence relate to your thesis
The whole point of each paragraph is to relate your point to your thesis, but it helps to spell it out clearly in at least one sentence of the paragraph.
Basically, the conclusion restates the introduction. So just reiterate questions 1, 2, and 3. It is also helpful to trace your argument as you made it within the essay. A good way to do this is to create a proof that might look something like this:
POINT ONE+POINT TWO+POINT THREE=THESIS
POINT ONE leads to POINT TWO which leads to POINT THREE therefore THESIS is true!
So, when planning your essay consider this format:
- Main Points
II. Point One
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to thesis
III. Point Two
- A. Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to thesis
IV. Point Three
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to thesis
- Restate subject
- Summarize Main Points
- Restate THESIS
- (B and C can be combined into the proof)
Organization in a paper is important not only because it makes the paper easier to write, it also guides the reader through the paper. A clearly organized paper will better hold the reader’s interest and convince them that your thesis is valid!
- Read the essay question carefully
- Highlight key words.
- Use the dictionary to check the meaning of any unfamiliar words.
- Identify the task words that indicate what needs to be done, eg ‘discuss’, ‘explain’, ‘compare’.
- Identify the topic words that indicate the particular subject of the essay, eg the character of ‘Juliet’ in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet , the ’causes’ of World War 1.
- Identify any limiting words that restrict the discussion to a particular area, eg in ‘Chapters 1-3’, during the ‘nineteenth century’.
- Finish any necessary reading or research as background to the essay
- Be selective: use sources which are relevant and accessible.
- Write notes in your own words.
- Write down quotations that may be particularly useful, but ensure the source of these quotes is acknowledged if they’re used.
- Take note of sources so they can be provided in footnotes and the bibliography.
- Trainstorm ideas in response to the question
- Jot down any relevant points.
- Make note of any relevant evidence or quotes that come to mind.
- Use a mind map to help stimulate lateral thinking.
- Develop a thesis (idea/argument) that encapsulates the response to the question
- The thesis should be a statement that strongly expresses the overall response to the question.
- Avoid a thesis that’s too simplistic – show thought has been put into some of the complexities behind the question.
- The thesis is the backbone of the essay – it will be stated in the introduction. It also needs to be referred to several times in the essay before restating it and demonstrating how it has been proven in the conclusion.
- Write a plan for the response
- Order ideas in a logical sequence.
- Make sure every point in the plan is relevant to the question.
- After the plan has been written it should be clear where the essay is going.
- Write the introduction
- Open up the discussion.
- Introduce the thesis.
- Indicate how the questions will be answered.
- Name any texts to be discussed, if appropriate.
- Engage the reader.
- Write the main body of the essay
- Ensure each point is given a new paragraph.
- Use words or phrases at the start of each paragraph that will indicate to the reader how it relates to the previous paragraph, eg, ‘however’, ‘in addition’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘moreover’.
- Start each paragraph with a topic sentence that clearly links the paragraph to the rest of the essay, eg “A striking example of Gary Crew’s use of light and darkness imagery to suggest notions of knowledge and ignorance occurs in the scene on the jetty”.
- Provide supporting evidence for each point that you make.
- Revisit the thesis, and express it in different ways if possible, to emphasise how the question is being addressed.
- Write the essay conclusion
- Summarise the main ideas.
- Demonstrate how you have proven your thesis.
- Finish with an interesting or thought-provoking, but relevant, comment.
- Edit the draft
- Check for spelling, punctuation and grammar.
- Delete any sections that are not particularly relevant.
- Change vocabulary to improve expression.
- Seek feedback from peers or a teacher before writing the final copy.
- Write the final copy
- Add any footnotes or bibliography if required.
- Present a clean, neat copy.
- Submit on time.
“Heaven Is My Judge”: Literary Devices in Othello
William Shakespeare’s classic drama Othello centers around the two conflicting characters of scheming, manipulative Iago and the honorable, but often times faithless Othello. Despite the fact that these men are completely opposite in character, Iago commands such persuasive powers that he literally starts to affect Othello’s thinking, altering the figures of speech he uses and his perceptions of those close to him. Both Othello and Iago use many of the same literary devices and much of the same figurative language to express not only their opinions of those around them, but also their general conceptions of the workings of the universe on a more spiritual level.
Act I of Othello closes with Iago giving a soliloquy introducing his plan to make Othello lose faith in his wife. This speech reveals Iago to have an incredibly materialistic and conceited nature, as he reduces everyone mentioned to an object easily capable of manipulation. Roderigo becomes Iago’s purse, Cassio is simply a handsome, noble man who can be used to make Othello jealous, and Othello himself is “”As tenderly [led] by the nose/ As asses are”” (1163). Even Iago’s own wife, Emilia, is referred to as Iago’s “”office,”” an item that he has earned, rather than a woman he has vowed to love. He concludes this speech by saying “”Hell and night/ Must bring this monstrous birth to the world’s light,”” comparing Othello and Desdemona’s marriage to a “”monster birth,”” while equating himself and his deceptions to Satan. Iago continuously makes comments about how hell is superior to heaven. In a later soliloquy near the end of Act II, Iago continues to relate the people he is manipulating to objects, this time also comparing the entire scenario to a game in which he plays the villain and Othello is a prize to be won. Iago mocks himself and his feigned innocence in this speech, exclaiming “”Divinity of hell!/ When devils will the blackest sins put on/ They do suggest at first with heavenly shows,/ As I do now”” (1180). Iago hates that he must play an innocent underling in his own plot, but at the same time he realizes that the easiest method to achieve his goals is to hide his true intentions under a cloak of innocence.
Othello’s soliloquy in Act V, before he kills Desdemona, bears many parallels to the speeches made by Iago throughout the play. Othello, like Iago, objectifies Desdemona several times, first refusing to spill her blood, for fear of ruining her “”smooth as monumental alabaster”” skin. He then says “”Put out the light, and then put out the light”” (1124), trying to give himself the resolve to literally extinguish the room’s light before figuratively extinguishing Desdemona’s life. This comparison of Desdemona to an extinguishable candle, rather than granting conviction, serves to stay further action briefly while he fully considers the analogy. He muses that if he extinguishes a candle, he can always light it again, while if he “”extinguishes”” his wife, here compared to some object of intricate design, nothing can bring her life back. When Othello finishes the candle analogy, he repeats the same idea, this time comparing Desdemona to a rose that, once plucked, can never grow again. This speech is concluded with the very Iago-like statement “”this sorrow’s heavenly,/ It strikes where it doth love”” (1125). Othello believes he is doing the right thing by killing his wife because according to his Christian beliefs, his God tests those He loves. This is not exactly what Iago was referring to when he mentioned devils putting on “”heavenly shows,”” but it greatly increases the audience’s sense of dramatic irony to know that Othello believes himself to be doing the right thing, even at this late point in the play.
While Othello uses much of Iago’s own figurative language by the end of the play, he does so to achieve different results. Iago degrades every other character by comparing them to objects that can easily be manipulated, while Othello, when he dehumanizes people, somehow makes them out to be more than human. Likewise, when Iago makes reference to heaven and hell, he always describes how hell comes out on top. Othello, on the other hand, knows that heaven represents all that is good and right on Earth and so eventually throws himself at the mercy of his God, making him the tragic hero of the play.
Causes and Effects of Uncontrolled Urbanization
Humankind can’t continue their lives without desires. If one wants to be happy, surely, he has to discover his best desires that provide him a happy life. Some of these desires that help to continue our lives can be acceptance in our relationships, a good family life and strong social relations. Trying to satisfy these desires has a great meaning to achieve happiness for me.
To start with, however embarrassed I am about this desire of mine, I have an obsession to expect people to accept my thoughts and manners in every situation. Yes, this is not a good characteristic and sometimes makes me an antipathic person but trying to be accepted by someone can give you happiness, too. Besides, if you can manage to make someone love you knowing and accepting all about you, I think that is the absolute happiness.
Furthermore, it seems to me that family is the basic source of happiness. Certainly, I can’t always be a good guy and sometimes I make them upset but I can’t stand seeing them upset. Therefore, I try to do whatever necessary to make them happy. Consequently, when I see happy family faces, I feel deeply happy.
Thirdly, to have friends is one of the most meaningful aspects of life. I believe that one should have three very warm friends at least. For example, I can’t bear loneliness and if I couldn’t share all my heart with these warm friends, I believe that I could never be happy. As a consequence, if you feel like me, it will be worth improving your close relationships in order to be happy.
To recap, humankind has a short life but he is given a lot of desires to be happy. Moreover, if one wants to discover the meaning of his short life, he should look for it in desires. Whether he finds it or not, he will taste happiness just by looking for it.
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