3- SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING
Q. 2: What are antiseptics? What is the antiseptics method?
Ans: Germs can be killed or destroyed or poisoned by using some chemicals known as antiseptics. Anti-septics are chemicals like carbolic acid. They kill the germs. They were used to treat injured people.
Q. 4: What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?
Ans: It not only destroyed the germs but also the white blood cells of the body. This was the chief defect of the antiseptic method. White cells are very important for our life.
Q. 5: What part is played by the white cells in the blood of a human body?
Ans: The white blood cells of the body are to protect the body against disease.
Q. 6: Describe the early life of Fleming?
He was born in a village near Darvel in 1881. He got an early education in a village school. Then he went to Darvel School. He worked as a clerk in a shipping firm. Then he decided to become a doctor.
Describe how Fleming discovered penicillin?
Ans: In 1922, Fleming was suffering from catarrh. He examined his own nasal secretions. It killed germs and did not harm white cells. He found a natural antiseptic produced by the body itself.
Q. 7: What was the aseptic method?
Ans: The method in which heat was used to destroy the germs of diseases was known as an aseptic method
Q. 8: In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?
Ans: Penicillin is better than other chemical antiseptics as it destroys only germs of disease and is harmless to the white cells of the blood.
What do you know about Oxford team?
It was headed by Howard Florey and Dr E.B. Chain. They had trained chemists as well. They concentrated penicillin. It was a great development in the medical field.
How did Oxford team make Penicillin more effective?
They had all the tools. They concentrated penicillin. In its crude form, it was unstable. It was a great development in the medical field.
Describe Penicillin as a wonder drug.
Penicillin was hailed as a wonder drug. It healed war wounds very fast. It saved countless lives. It was a strong weapon against diseases.
Was Fleming proud of his discovery?
Ans: Fleming was humble and not proud of his discovery. He said, “Nature makes penicillin, I just found it”.
Q. 10: Why couldn’t penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?
Ans: Penicillin could not have been discovered in laboratories of America. These were very neat, clean. They were covered from all sides. The spore of penicillin could not reach inside them.
Q. 11: Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?
Ans: Penicillin had many advantages. Firstly, it was a blessing in the world of medicine. Secondly, it had stimulated other scientist to discover new antibiotics.
Q. 2: Describe the early life of Pasteur?
Ans: Pasteur belonged to a humble family. He lived in Jura District of France. He got an early education there. Then he moved to the city and became a famous scientist in history.
Q. 3: Give some instances of patriotism of Pasteur?
Ans: Pasteur was a great patriot. He offered himself to serve in the army. He worked for France in the field of science. He saved the wine and silk industry of France. Once he donated all his savings for the welfare of France.
Q. 4: What do you mean by ‘spontaneous generation?
Ans: Spontaneous generation means that life can start out of non-living things. It is also called autogenesis. It means germs can grow out of nothing.
Q. 5: How did Pasteur prove that spontaneous generation was not a fact?
Ans: Pasteur held a competition in a lab of experts. He made experiments. He proved that things change because of bacteria. Germs do not grow if we kill them with heat and control external influence.
Q. 6: describe the importance and popularity of the silkworm industry? How did Pasteur help them during disease of silkworms?
People greeted each other by saying, “How ware your silkworms doing”? The best room in the house was used for silkworms. Pasteur asked them to stop over-heating and overcrowding. He asked them to keep the place clean. Thus he saved this industry.
What help did Pasteur render in curing the “silkworm” disease in his country?
Ans: Pasteur advised the rearers of silkworm to avoid overcrowding’ over-heating and unhealthy conditions. These things weakened them and made them ill. It helped a lot.
Q. 7: How did Pasteur discover the treatment of the cattle disease, Anthrax?
Ans: Pasteur cultivated the germs in such a way that they were weakened. When these germs were inoculated into the healthy animals, they produced a mild type of illness. This protects them from different diseases.
Q. 8: Who did Pasteur discover the method of making vaccines?
Ans: Pasteur cultivated the germ in such a way that they were weakened. When these germs were inoculated into the healthy animals, they produced a mild type of illness. This protects them from different diseases.
Q. 9: Give an account of Pasteur’s treatment of hydrophobia?
Ans: The first human disease for which Pasteur used inoculation was hydrophobia or Rabies. It was a horrible disease caused by the bite of a “Mad” dog.
Q. 10: How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists?
Ans: Pasteur abolished superstitions about diseases. Diseases and death was a mysterious thing. The disease is a kind of germs. He found out their causes and brought them to the world of facts.
5. MUSTAFA KAMAL
Q. 2: What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after world war I?
Ans: Padsha and old liberals cooperate with them. They wanted to form a government with the support of Allies.
Q. 3: Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?
Ans: Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to put down the rebels who were not obeying Padsha.
Q. 4: What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intentions of the allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?
Ans: They planned to wage a war against the Greeks through guerillas. They wanted to build up to the national army and temporary government in Anatolia.
Q. 5: Writer a note on Mustafa Kamal activities in Anatolia?
Ans: Mustafa Kamal planned to rage a war against the Greeks through guerillas. He wanted to build up the national army and temporary government in Anatolia.
Q. 6: Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?
Ans: Mehmet felt that he was working against the interest of his government. So he ordered him to come back at once.
Q. 7: What was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?
Ans: In reply to the order of the sultan of turkey, Mustafa Kamal said. “ I shall stay in Anatolia until the nation has won its independence”.
Q. 8: What was decided by the Grand Turkish National Assembly at the end of the war?
Ans: The Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided by the unanimous vote to abolish the Sultanate in Turkey.
Q. 9: Why did Mustafa simply the Turkish language?
Ans: The Turkish language had many Arabic and Persian words. It was difficult to learn. Mustafa Kamal simplified the Turkish language to make it simple, easy and modern.
Q. 10: What were Mustafa views about women of the country?
Ans: Mustafa was of the opinion that woman should have equal rights. They should be educated. They should be encouraged to take part in national progress.
Q. 11: What were Mustafa Kamal economic reforms?
Ans: For economic reform, new roads and railways were constructed. New factures were opened. He encouraged heavy industry. They banking system was organized. He did all this without borrowing from outside.
Q. 12: What were his social reforms in the country?
Ans: Mustafa Kamal finished the old title. The people used to wear Fez: now wearing of hat was compulsory. Veil was also abolished. Women were allowed to get higher education.
Q. 13: What happened on 23rd of April, 1920?
Ans: On 23rd April 1920, the revolutionary Turkish Grand Assembly met and elected Mustafa Kamal as the first president of Turkey.